2023-24 Tax Brackets and Federal Income Tax Rates: What They Mean For Your Money

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In the United States, home ownership is subsidized by the federal government by permitting limited deductions for mortgage interest expense and capital gains. Therefore, treating renters and homeowners identically under such a consumption tax may not be feasible there. A national consumption tax would create a federal tax on consumer goods, possibly to be emphasized over (or even replace) income and payroll tax, which funds Social Security, Medicare and other government programs. A group of House Republicans is looking to raise sales taxes with the FairTax Act, which would abolish the Internal Revenue Service and replace income tax and other levies with a national sales tax. A consumption tax is one that applies to the sale or purchase of a good or service. While consumption taxes come in several different forms, they generally apply at the time of purchase.

  • We find a consumption tax reform would reduce the economic, administrative, and compliance costs of the U.S. tax system, leading to increases in employment, wages, output, and incomes while improving the long-term well-being of American families and children.
  • It’s worth noting that California has the highest sales tax in the nation, so this example would look quite different in other states.
  • Reforming the current income tax system toward a consumption tax system would support rising living standards and economic growth.
  • Almost every state imposes sales tax except for Alaska, Delaware, Montana, New Hampshire, and Oregon, which instead allows cities to charge a local sales tax.

Looking at families with children, we estimate that on a conventional basis, after-tax income increases by 4.0 percent for the bottom 20 percent of income earners and by 2.1 percent on average overall. Embedding much of the social safety net in the income tax code, however, creates complexities for families and limits the effectiveness in providing support to households who do not file taxes. Consumption tax reform can boost after-tax income for families with children, simplify the tax filing experience, and ensure a robust system for raising revenue for government programs. Because Taxpayer B does not immediately consume her earnings, she would not face an initial tax, instead saving all $100 of her earnings.

While increased economic growth and material living standards do not make up the entirety of human well-being, material prosperity is strongly correlated with better outcomes for people across a variety of alternate measures. Alternatively, fringe benefits could be taxed at the source, meaning firms would not deduct the cost of fringe benefits and households would not pay tax on fringe benefits, and could be subject to payroll taxes. Many countries, including many European countries, have a consumption tax. Japan, Australia, New Zealand, Singapore, Canada, and India are among the countries with a form of national consumption tax.

Income effect

But much of what we “know” is not part of the general policy discussion and there are important issues that the literature has recognized but still not resolved. The current federal tax code is not a pure version of either a consumption tax or income tax. It most closely resembles a broad income tax, generally taxing a person’s current earnings (whether spent or saved) plus the change in the value of their existing assets (such as dividends, capital gains, interest, etc.). Currently, the U.S. taxes individuals and business with income taxes such as the individual income tax, corporate income tax, and capital gains taxes. While the U.S. does levy consumption taxes in the form of sales taxes and excise taxes, it does not have a national consumption tax. An income tax, in contrast, is imposed when you earn money, a consumption tax is imposed when an you spend money.

  • On a long-run conventional basis, taxpayers overall would see a slight change in after-tax income, as the reform is nearly revenue neutral.
  • Value added tax is a consumption based tax and is levied each and every time the value of a good gets increased in the process of manufacturing to the point of sale.
  • The sales tax is usually ad valorem, that is, it is calculated by applying a percentage rate to the taxable price of a sale.
  • There’s also when you get outside of the economist models, there’s a concern that if we switch, the current system we have now encourages a lot kinds of savings, you get a special break if you put money into a 401-K or your employer puts money in a pension or an IRA.
  • Therefore, the homeowner is also consuming housing by not permitting renters to pay for and occupy the home.
[74] Retaining the current structure of individual income taxes on pass-through businesses would lead to a short-term distortion that would fade in the long run as businesses would be incentivized to take on corporate form. For taxpayers with child dependents, after-tax income on a long-run conventional basis would increase by 4.2 percent for the bottom 20 percent of families with children. The simplified lump sum credits are especially impactful for taxpayers with children, increasing income by more than the overall average for the bottom 60 percent of taxpayers. In the long run, as measured on a conventional basis, after-tax income of all taxpayers increases slightly on average, as the plan is roughly revenue neutral. The bottom 20 percent of taxpayers would see an increase in after-tax income of 5.5 percent.

Value-added tax

Wages would rise by 1.2 percent while hours worked would fall by 531,000 full-time equivalent jobs. Compliance costs are particularly important for entrepreneurs and their decision to enter or exit an industry. Reforming the tax code can reduce each type of cost imposed by the tax system and increase the standard of living American families enjoy. Reducing the economic cost of taxes can lead to increases in employment, wages, output, and, ultimately, after-tax income. Reducing the administrative burden on the government and the compliance burden on individuals adds to the gains in after-tax income by reducing time and money spent enforcing and complying with tax rules. The possibility of a new broad federal consumption tax, such as a value-added tax (commonly known as VAT), is an alternative to merely increasing the income tax.

A consumption tax thus results in a neutral tax burden between uses of income. It removes the income tax bias against saving and results in the same effective tax rate on income no matter if it is consumed now or consumed in the future. Though higher-income households save more, treating income neutrally no matter its use is completely separate from the distributional burden of a tax, as any tax type can be structured to meet various distributional goals. We find a consumption tax reform would reduce the economic, administrative, and compliance costs of the U.S. tax system, leading to increases in employment, wages, output, and incomes while improving the long-term well-being of American families and children. The sales tax is usually ad valorem, that is, it is calculated by applying a percentage rate to the taxable price of a sale.

Which states have no income tax?

It alleviates a bias in the tax code and incentivizes companies to invest more, which, in the long run, raises worker productivity, boosts wages, and creates more jobs. Allows businesses to fully deduct the cost of their investments from their taxable incomeTaxable income is the amount of income subject to tax, after deductions and exemptions. For both individuals and corporations, taxable income differs from—and is less than—gross income.


While income tax may be the most well-known, consumption tax plays a crucial role in many countries’ revenue systems. So, let’s explore the concept of consumption tax, its types, and how it differs from income tax. The other $4.16 is not lost by the economy in any sense, as the $4.16 is what the government would make in interest, if it had invested its tax revenue in the same investment.

International experiences with VATs, varied as they may be, all point to the lesson of maintaining as broad a consumption tax base as possible with a single standard rate, and using direct policy means to achieve other goals. Further, specific experiences with VAT implementation can be instructive on other aspects of adopting a consumption tax. We can compare the 20 percent income tax to a 20 percent consumption tax. Taxpayer A’s situation would remain the same, paying a 20 percent consumption tax on her immediate consumption, yielding $80 of immediate consumption and a 20 percent effective tax rate. An income tax thus places a higher percentage tax burden on future consumption than current consumption by reducing the after-tax return to saving. She would also owe the 20 percent income tax on the $8 return to her $80 in savings, resulting in an additional $1.60 of taxes.

So if you move the tax from income to consumption, you’re raising the relative burden on low savers, which are low and moderate income households, so almost any revenue neutral shift from the income tax to a consumption tax will be regressive in that manner. There are ways, there are conceptual ways to do it that doesn’t add burdens to low and middle income households, but I don’t what is inventory think that they would actually happen. Starting in the 1990s, several former Soviet-bloc countries abandoned their progressive income tax systems and replaced them with flat taxes. Although they still taxed income broadly, some sought to eliminate the prevalence of double taxation by eliminating taxes on dividends and inheritances, moving closer to a consumption tax system.

Economic, Revenue, and Distributional Effects of a Value-Added Tax and Rebate

In this March 2005 interview on the NewsHour with Jim Lehrer, Len Burman and William Gale explain what a consumption tax is and discuss the effects one would have on the economy. In the long run, the plan has a positive economic effect and is approximately revenue neutral on a conventional basis. Two commonly cited concerns when moving to a consumption tax are the distributional impact and transition. We briefly discuss both concerns and highlight options policymakers may implement to address them.